Fatigue Resistant Materials Coursework

Presentation on theme: "GCSE Resistant Materials Coursework"— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Resistant Materials Coursework
ByNathaniel Olson

2 The Design Brief Below is the design brief:
I would be making a Greenpower kit-car. Greenpower is a charitable organisation that runs a series of races in the UK for school-built electric cars. Many schools would like to participate in these races, but lack the basic expertise to built a car from the ground up. This is my target market; a kit-built car for schools that could campaign a car and make modifications, but want a sound base to work from. The car will be largely built from wood, to promote the sustainability and ecological ethos of the Greenpower organisation.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

3 Target AudienceThis would be aimed at secondary schools that want to be involved in Greenpower, but lack the experience, knowledge and the equipment to do so. Also this would be more attractive to the pupils that come from feeder schools which have been participating in the Goblins. The pupils that are interested in engineering and racing need a kit-car that is competitive, because the current kit-car that is being supplied by Greenpower is uncompetitive in most cases and extremely heavy. As a fact, there are more Goblins in the South West than any other region.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

4 Task Analysis

5 MaterialsWoodOrganic, non‐ toxic, energy efficient, 100% environmentally friendly, biodegradable,It’s re-useable, recyclable and renewable in your lifetime.Wood is tough due to the fibres in the grain but can snap if bent too far.Strong in compression and very light.For bending: soak, steam or laminate.Easy to mark, cut and join. Can be easily shaped.Join by jointing, gluing, screwing or bolting.Steel:‐ It’s strong, hard wearing, heavy, malleable, machinable.‐ Can be cast into complicated shapes when heated a high temperatures.‐ Using heat to bend, roll or shape is called forging.‐ Join together by solder, brazing, welding, bolts or rivets.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

6 What I am going to use for Materials and Finishes
I chose plywood for my project because it comes in broad flat sheets which are very strong, it can be painted or varnished.It is sustainable because it is made from commercially forested wood and has little waste. It is also biogradeable.I chose to use a solvent-based paint to protect the chassis. This isn’t a sustainable finish as it forces the car to be unrecyclable and have to go straight to landfill sites. However because it should protect the car so well that it wouldn’t need to be replaced for a long time.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

7 JointsThe joint on the left is a good permanent effective joint. Once it’s glued with PVA or other glue, it cannot break easily. This joint is designed for strength.BRIDLEMORTISE AND TENONThe joint on the left is an easy to make common woodworking joint that is usually seen in furniture. The strength is not as great as the mortise and tenon joint.CROSS HALVINGThis is a similar joint to the mortise and tenon , except there is an opening at the corner which means that it’s weaker. This can be replicated along the edge to form a structure.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

8 Design Specification MUST DESIRABLE
Must fit the regulations set by Greenpower (See in two slides)Be able to fit wide range of people into it.To be built largely from wood or other sustainable/recyclable materials.To be designed to take advantage of modern computer controlled manufacturing techniques such CNC routing and waterjet cutting. This will reduce costs, increase manufacturing accuracy, and keep material waste to a minimum.Will be easily modified by student clubs to their preferencesHave the ability to put a aerodynamic body over itBe easily repaired after a crashTo provide instructions/documentation that show how the car is assembled, and the design principles behind the car. This allows the school to use the Greenpower car as part of the curriculum.DESIRABLELow as possible to make it more aerodynamicMake it narrow as possible to make it more aerodynamicStructural rigidity (torsional and longitudinal) . This will improve the car’s handlingState-of-the-art steering geometry – to improve handling for new drivers and improve safetyTarget weight distribution of 50/50 front to back to improve handlingAs most of the car will be made from sheet materials, optimise design to fit on the minimum number of sheets.To provide the metal components (steering and drivetrain) in a pre-assembled form for schools that lack the ability to weld.Minimum number of componentsNathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

9 Greenpower Regulations 1
BatteriesT2.6. Batteries must be separated from the driver by a bulkhead, or contained in a rigid, covered, ventilated box, which must not be able to short circuit battery terminals. Batteries must be located within the bodywork of the vehicle.Wheel & TrackT3.1. Tyres must not be less than 300mm or greater than 520mm in diameter.T3.2. There must be four wheels located as a matching front and matching rear pair, symmetrically about the centreline of the vehicle.T3.3. The track of the vehicle must not be less than 500mm front or rear. The track is deemed as the measured width between centres of tyres where they contact the ground. The track may vary front to rear.T3.4. Tyres must be pneumatic.Centre of GravityT4.1. The base of the batteries must be at or below 100mm from ground level. A 6mm diameter hole should be drilled through any solid floors adjacent to the batteries to allow height measurement.T4.2. The driver’s seat including any padding must be at or below 100mm from ground level. A 6mm hole should be drilled through the base of the seat to allow height measurement.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

10 Greenpower Regulations 2
DimensionsT5.1. The vehicle must not exceed 2800mm in length, 1200mm in width, and 1200mm in height.T5.2. Ground clearance must not be less than 30mm.SeatingT6.1. The vehicle will have one seat firmly fixed to the vehicle chassis for the driver who will remain seated at all times whilst racing.T6.2. The driver must be seated in a conventional feet forward, head to the back position. Drivers may not kneel, sit astride a seat, or lie down in any way such that their chests and head are forward of their waist.T6.4. There must be a solid floor under the whole of the driver.T10.4. The vehicle must be fitted with a minimum four fixing point, 50mm width safety harness, with secure fixing points on the roll bar or chassis. Harness shoulder strap fixing points should be close to shoulder height and neck width. Lap straps must be able to be fully tightened before shoulder straps and must fully tighten around the driver’s lap without additional padding in front of the driver.T10.5. Drivers in low reclined seating positions with a raking angle of less than 45 degrees if the seat has a flat base, or 30 degrees with a front angle of 15 degrees will require a five or six point safety harness.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

11 Greenpower Regulations 3
Bodywork/ChassisT7.1. The vehicle will have bodywork reaching to at least the back of the driver, and at the sides must always cover the elbows of the driver. Bodywork must not prevent hand signals from being made.T7.2. There must be a permanent cockpit opening, large enough for the driver to exit the vehicle, without the use of doors or the movement or removal of any panels or coverings.T7.5. Medium-high density energy absorbing flexible closed cell foam of minimum 25mm thickness must be attached down the cockpit sides to protect a substantial part of the driver’s body, from the floor to the cockpit opening.T7.6. There must be a structural cage around the driver’s position. External bodywork either side of the driver’s body to a minimum height of 250mm from the seat base, or elbow height if above this level, shall be of rigid material such as aluminium, rigid plastics, carbon fibre, grp or other composites of at least 1.5mm thickness. Plywood needs to be a minimum of 3mm thick. Corroflute type material or foam on its own is not permitted for this area. This bodywork shall be lined internally with foam as per regulation T7.5.T7.7. There must be a solid bulkhead forward of the driver’s feet in the front of the cockpit, with 100mm depth of medium- high density energy absorbing flexible closed cell foam forward of this bulkhead, to protect the driver from frontal impact.T7.9. Bodywork must not prevent scrutineers being able to check the integrity of steering linkages, wheel bearings and wheel security. Vehicles must be able to have these items exposed during scrutineering.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

12 Greenpower Regulations 4
Roll BarT9.1. The vehicle must have front and rear roll bars offering protection in accordance with the diagrams shown here – the helmeted head of all drivers must be at least 50mm below the line A-B as shown.T9.2. Roll bars must be firmly secured to the chassis of the vehicle. At least one triangulated brace must be fitted to the rear roll bar. This brace should attach to the chassis of the vehicle at one end, to not more than 200mm from the top of the roll bar at the other, and must be capable of taking forward and rearward loadings.T9.3. Aluminium or steel roll bars are to be used and must be strong enough and of sufficient dimensions to perform satisfactorily. If in doubt check material suitability with Greenpower before construction. Composite roll bars are not permitted.SteeringT11.1. Steering systems must have minimal play in joints. Control rod geometry must not be able to over centre.T11.2. Steering must be by mechanical linkages only.T11.3. Steering must be by front wheels only.T11.4. Steering must be operable by hand only.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

13 InspirationRotary RacerNathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

14 Inspiration 2 Richard Lander Racing
The back end is what I am interested in. The motor, roll bar and back cross axle are all connected to one piece. This is then bolted to the chassis. This is an easy way of doing the motor, roll bar and back cross axle.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

15 Inspiration 3 Penair School – Raptor Fusion
The battery box on the left is a good way of doing it. It is sitting on rails so when the driver gets out, they slide the battery box out and change the batteries. Then they slide it back in. The advantage of this is that there is no opening to get the batteries in and out and this gives it a aerodynamic advantage. But this means that the driver must get out before changing the batteries which means slower pit stop.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

16 Inspiration 4 Penair School – Raptor Fusion
The picture on the right shows the jagged teeth on the bottom of seat. This inserts into the jagged teeth on the left and makes a adjustable seat.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

17 Research Plan What do I need to find out? Where do I find it?
How would it help me?What is the average school technology department best equipped to do?InterviewThis would tell me what materials I should make it out of.The main thing that a kit car has to do?I would need to decide what my car would need to do.The size of the biggest driver and smallest driver.It would help me to design the car around a wide range of people.What form would the club like to recieve their kit-car?When selling the kit-car, I need to know how they would want to receive the kit-carHow much would they spend on a kit car?This is to help me to build the car within the parametersNathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

18 Product Analysis #1 Penryn College Hot Ice
What materials have been used to make it?The materials are super light steel and plywood. We used steel because it’s very strong and versatile. After making the chassis, wood was required to fill the gaps so the driver can sit in it. We also used the wood as a board where we can fit electrical wires and devices.What processes could be used to make it?The car is made by brazing and welding.Advantages:You can very easily change the shape or add parts onto it.Can be lightDisadvantages:The high heat of this car can cause a twisted frame or a distortion of the metalWould need equipment that is dangerous and hard to learn.More expensive.What sort of body shapes work and why? How does that affect the chassis?The body shape is crucial in the performance of the car, so the body needs to be long, thin and low in order for the car to cut through the air efficiently. So the chassis would need to have that ability to be aerodynamic. Unfortunately this car is very wide and high off the ground so immediately the car has a big disadvantage.Is the steering any good?This car has a lot more steering than is required in Greenpower racing. The track is very big and has big corners that does not require a great degree of turning. This affects the overall size of the body and chassis. The only use of the extra degree of steering, is navigating around the Greenpower paddock and the pit-lane and getting out of the classroom.Is the positioning of the battery box any good?The battery box is under the seat to help the weight distribution and the handling . If we put the battery at the front of the car, it would make the handling horrible.Is the positioning of the seat any good?The seat is in the right place except the angle is wrong. The seat is very upright compared to the way it should be. If the seat is flatter, it would improve the aerodynamics, as the driver is lower, therefore we can make the body lower.In order to make the car thin to make it more aerodynamic, the back wheels would need to go behind the driver and the front wheels need to be tuck right next to the legs.

19 Product Analysis #2 Penair School Raptor Fusion
What materials have been used to make it?The material is carbon sheets with a honeycomb core in between. This makes a super light, super strong car. This is used for the majority of the chassis. The steering linkages are made of metal. The roll bar is also made of aluminium as it’s required.What processes could be used to make it?This car is glued together with epoxy resin. This is an harmful substance to use and a parent must have done it away from the school.They would’ve need to use this substance as they are using carbon fibre with as honeycomb core which is a hard material to glue together.The advantages of this is the strong end product that won’t come apart easily. The epoxy resin helps to the make the car lighter as well.The disadvantages of this method is the substance itself that has been used to glue the car together.What sort of body shapes work and why? How does that affect the chassis?The body is hugely critical in the performance of the car, so the body needs to be long, thin and low in order the car to cut through the car efficiently. So the chassis would need to have that ability to be aerodynamic. This does exactly that, so this is a good car to be aerodynamically good, and this show in the national final where they came 4th out of 75 cars.Is the steering any good?The car, visually has barely no steering, but it does have enough steering to drive around the track which is the objective. The car has a 11 metres turning circle so it’s more manoeuvrable than a ordinary car. The disadvantages of this is that the car has to be lifted around to get out of class rooms, or tight spaces in the paddock. The small degree of turning helps them to have a smaller body which makes them faster.Is the positioning of the seat any good?There is no seat in this car because there is no space for it. This makes it unconformable to drive in. The driver’s position in this car is right, He/she would lying down, with the majority of their body laying on the floor with the head leaning forwards toward the front so he/she can see out of the car.Is the positioning of the battery box any good?The battery box is one of the good features of this car because, it’s built on a set of rail, so when the driver gets out, it can slide out. This enables the car to have no hatches on the body which gives them a aerodynamic advantage.

20 Interview with Chris Parker
I had an interview with Chris Parker, a Director at Inspired Cycle Engineering, who mentors the Greenpower club at Penair School. I have worked part-time at I.C.E.We discussed his ideas for a light, easily built chassis.First, he talked to me about the construction of the lightweight car. He sees a main structure which has two 4x2 wooden posts on either side of the car. The two cross axles (supplied by ICE) would be attached to the two posts via block of wood attached to posts. Then the roll bar would be bolted to the wooden posts. So the posts are crucial as everything on the car would be attached to them. There are a small number of bulkheads which give the box it’s basic shape, and a sheet of bendable material which wraps around the bottom of the car and attaches to the 4x2’s. The driver would lay inside this folded material.He talked about the steering, which consists of a similar system to the one that ICE uses on their trikes. It uses a handlebar from a bike attached to a bike stem and that would rotate round a pivot. That would be linked with two track rods, one for each wheel. They would be attached to the edge of the handlebar to the kingpost (rotatable mounts for the wheel). This is a basic steering system that is easy to build. Also on the handlebar, he said you can put two brake lever on it, one for brake and one for turning the motor on/off. The ends of the handlebar could be used for other options.We also talked about the battery and motor layout. Firstly between the two timber posts at each side, there would be a partition behind the driver, and one at the back of the car. Between the two partitions, there would be pieces of wood spanning the gap and that would be where the batteries and motor would go. The batteries would have a lid which would rotate on a pivot; built into the lid is the contacts. The reason why there aren’t any plugs or wires is to improve reliability and reduce the maintenance on the batteries and car between each race.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

21 Interview with ChrisHe talked about the centre of gravity and the weight distribution and how that would improve the handling and the load on each wheel. I need to consider this as it would determine the position of the front wheels. Ideally the weigh on each wheel should be the same – a distribution between the 2 axles. It is also important to keep the weight out of the end of the car, as it affects the handling (how quickly the car can turn and how easy it is on it’s tyres) and how the car handles bumps (weight in the ends can cause pitching, which can change the loading on the wheels)Then he went on about the importance of aerodynamics compared to the importance of weight of the car. The main point that he was trying to make is that the aerodynamics is vital and making a light car is although important, but it doesn’t affect the car in the way that aerodynamics does. He then gave me a sheet which explained the point that he was trying to make. One thing that surprised me the most, is that the 3 times winner Rotary Racers, their car weighs 75 kg which is significantly heavier than the most of the field and this shows the aerodynamics is crucial to doing competitively.Then we went back to the car and talked about the gearing and what would be the best way of setting it up. He suggested that mounting the cassette on the motor shaft would work with a derailleur shifting the gears around. This reduces the amount of strain put on the system, and reduces the length of chain being used and therefore less to break. Then I suggested a system that I thought that would be used in a lot of car all of the country.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

22 Interview with Chris Summary
Basic car built of 4x2 with attached structures for the steering and the drive system is a good idea. The bent material forming the main part of the body may not be the best idea. It limits the shape of the car to a cylindrical or conical shape that can be bent from sheet material. It might be better to construct a coffin- like box from several panels that would allow some control over the final shape, especially if the box is going to be the outside skin of the car (aerodynamic shape is very important). I am not sure if the 2 of 4x2’s will make a stiff enough body; stiffness is important to the handling of the car, although a small amount of torsional flexibility helps keep all 4 wheels on the ground in a car with no suspension.Steering is something that has to be considered with the shape of the body. A steering system that requires a lot of room to build or to operate can increase the size of the car. Raptor Fusion, the Penair Car, uses side sticks in order to reduce the height of the car.The weight distribution information is important. An easily handled car will be quicker and cause less driver fatigue.Although aerodynamics is important, keeping the weight low is worth doing. It may not make a big difference, but it does make some difference.Gearing can help in setting the car up for a particular track, and can help keep the motor running at it’s most efficient point. Putting a cassette on the motor shaft could be a problem, as it is backwards from how normal bicycle parts work, and may require a lot of custom work to get right. It also has to be considered that we have drivers of differing abilities, and a shifting system that is not foolproof stands a good chance of breaking and putting the car out of the race. To finish first, first you have to finish!Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

23 First IdeaThis chassis is loosely based on a design from Penair School, Their car came 4th in the national championship so I thought it would be a good starting point. This idea uses the space beside the legs to fit the wheels in. This makes the car thinner and more aerodynamic. The motor sits underneath the driver’s seat. This is both a good and bad idea. It’s a good, neat place to put it, but the motor can get very hot while driving and the lack of air flow would burn out the motor. The batteries are behind the driver as it’s most convenience place to put. It make the access to it easier because fast pit stops are necessary in order to do well in the race. Steering is a push and pull system which steers the car. This method is very easy to do and allows a large degree of turning.I chose this car because it was the most practical and most developed out of my three ideas.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

24 Second IdeaI didn’t get very far with this idea as I struggled to find places to mount the batteries, motor, wheels, roll bar and steering components.The idea was a simple wooden box would be mounted to two long timber posts. The cross axle would be mounted onto the timber posts. The motor and batteries would be mounted on a partition that hangs from the posts. This idea would end up being too complicated and very tight spaces which would decrease the efficiency of the motor.The big disadvantage of this car is that it’s not very aerodynamic which is vitally important in in Greenpower racing. There wasn’t any place to put the body on it . I didn’t choose this idea because it wasn’t practical and it has a aerodynamic disadvantage.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

25 Third IdeaThis is a modification on the previous idea. The box underneath has been replaced by a Raptor fusion chassis shape. This car has more support for a aerodynamic body. This would work the same way as the previous idea, but would have more space for components.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

26 Final IdeaNathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

27 Complicated VersionAfter making the basic version of my car, I need to make the proper version of the car with individual pieces all mated together to make a functional car. The left picture shows what my basic idea was turned into and then the right picture shows the near completed car. In the next slides I will be showing the progress of the car and how each element of the car will be made and function.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

28 Slots that builds the car
The each piece of the car would be have slots and tabs that can slot into another piece that has the matching slots and form a solid joint.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

29 Top Piece and the Man Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials
The top piece will be added onto the top of car, making the car stronger and more durable. This is crucial as the car to be lasting for 4+ years. The top will be attaching itself to all of the top edges and will have a cut out for the driver to get in and out.What happens in a race is that the car travels over decent size bumps, even on a race track, during the 4 hours of racing. All of the loose parts in the car such as the body can amplify the vibration. This vibration needs to be sustained by the car otherwise it will fall apart after a race or two.In order for my car to be able to fit a normal human being, I need one in my car, so I downloaded a man from the internet and inserted him into my car. Things that I have found out about the car:The motor layout won’t workCar is too thinCar is too longNathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

30 Batteries and Motor Layout and The Shape of Chassis
There are several advantages from this layout.Firstly the heat that the motor is emitting can be direct into the batteries making them perform better. This can be done by mounting the motor on an aluminium sheet which would bend over the wall that surrounds the batteries and into the box.Secondly, the layout helps the weight distribution to be more central which then would help the manoeuvrability and difficulty of steering the car.Thirdly the motor is neatly tucked away under the seat, which gives up space behind the batteries which then can be used for electrics and the jack shaft that will drive the wheel.The shape of the chassis has been design to take advantage of a human body’s shape. As the shoulders are a lot wider then the hips and legs, I make the space around the legs a lot thinner. This allows space for the wheels to be there and able to move. This would allow the car to be thinner and have more aerodynamic advantage.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

31 Frontal Support & Wheel Positions
Because my car is a effectively a rectangle that can be swayed side to side to form a parallelogram. This is bad for the car structure and should never happen. After building my first model, I thought it needed more support.So, I created a wooden triangulated brace that attaches to the base and the sides. The reason for the triangle shape is that it’s a good shape to support the forces the car can subject to during the race, the hole are there for making it lighter. This will improve the stability and structure of car.The wheels positions are important as they determinate the weight distribution and manoeuvrability of the car. The front wheels are on the edge of the car rather then being inside as they need as much space as possible to rotate to achieve tighter turning circle. This current setup can do a 10 metre turning circle which is more manoeuvrable than a road car.The back wheels are inboard so the body can go around the wheels and not be interfered by them. This is designed to be more aerodynamic.Nathaniel Olson GCSE Resistant Materials

Design and Technology: Resistant Materials Curriculum

Resistant Materials runs for Year 11 students who are finishing off their GCSE qualification. Please see Design and Technology for details of the course taught at Year 9 and Year 10.


Year 11

The majority of Year 11 will be focused on the controlled assessment unit. This is a design and make activity where the students will demonstrate their skills, knowledge and understanding of resistant materials by designing and making a high quality product.

Half Term 1 (June-July)
Students will be introduced to their coursework unit and start to research and design a product based on a given design brief.
Students carry out an analysis of their chosen design brief. Detailed research and analysis’s undertaken in order to help the students to gather information to help them to design and write a design specification.

External Assessment/Controlled Assessment: Yes
Internal Common Assessment: See below
Coursework Deadline this H/T: Analysis of the design brief. Research of existing products, materials and other relevant areas
Field Trips/Visits: No

Half Term 2 (September - October)
The students will use the information gather in their research and design a range of possible solutions to their chosen design problem. The students present their work in an A3 format using a range of different design and presentation techniques. At the end of the design ideas section the students evaluate each idea to identify the best design to develop into a final design solution.

External Assessment/Controlled Assessment:
Internal Common Assessment: See below
Coursework Deadline this H/T: 4 initials will be produced. These ideas will be reviewed.
Field Trips/Visits: No

Half Term 3 (November - December)
Students develop their chosen design into a final realised solution. Testing, modelling and experimentation are encouraged in order to achieve a final design. Presentation drawings of the final design are produced detailing materials, processes and sizes. Every detail of the final design must be thoroughly considered and tested. A detailed production plan is produced alongside a cutting list of materials needed for the manufacturing process.

External Assessment/Controlled Assessment:
Internal Common Assessment:
Coursework Deadline this H/T: Design Development, final design drawing and production plan. Cutting list of materials.
Field Trips/Visits: No

Half Term 4 (January - February)
This whole term is dedicated to the manufacture of the designed and planned product. Students have approximately 16 hours to produce their final piece of practical work. During this time students are expected to produce a “Diary of manufacture” to evidence the making of their product.

External Assessment/Controlled Assessment: Yes
Internal Common Assessment: No
Coursework Deadline this H/T: Practical work completed by February half term. Diary of manufacture completed over the half term.
Field Trips/Visits: No

Half Term 5 (March - April)
Final testing and evaluation of the finished products carried out. Work is presented in the final folder for submission for final assessment

External Assessment/Controlled Assessment: Yes
Internal Common Assessment: No
Coursework Deadline this H/T: Testing and Evaluation. FINAL COURSEWORK DEADLINE.
Field Trips/Visits: No

Half term 6 (April - May)
Structured time for revision and past exam paper exercises.

External Assessment/Controlled Assessment: No
Internal Common Assessment: No
Coursework Deadline this H/T: N/A
Field Trips/Visits: No

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