A cause and effect essay is a type of essay that explains why the event or the situation occurs (causes) and the results of its happening (effects). Writing a cause and effect essay takes students lots efforts cause the main idea of writing such an essay is to examine the reasons and the results of the phenomenon. But as for the structure, a cause and effect essay outline is simple: introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. If you are assigned to write a cause and effect essay here is a list of great cause and effect essay topics.
50 BEST IDEAS FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY TOPICS
In case you are looking for cause and effect essay examples, you can read the one below.
Air Pollution Poignant Matters
Air pollution refers to a chemical, physical or biological alteration to the atmospheric air. It results whenever harmful gasses, smoke, or dust enters the atmosphere and in turn, hinders the survival of animals and plants as the air contains toxic substances.
The survival of human beings and animals greatly depend on the combination of gasses in the atmosphere; slight disruption of this composition can cause devastating effects on their existence. An imbalance in these atmospheric gasses is known to result in global warming, a great threat to the contemporary world. We cannot underestimate the effects air pollution has on the ozone layer which largely contributes to the existence of organisms on the planet.
Causes of Air Pollution
For the causes of air pollution to be well articulated, it is important to delve into the types of air pollutants. Air pollutants can be caused by secondary and primary sources. If a process directly results to pollution, then this forms the primary source. For instance, factories emit sulfur dioxide which is a primary source of air pollution. Reactions and interactions between primary sources form the secondary pollutant. For instance, the intermingling of primary pollutants forms smog which is a secondary pollutant.
Burning of fossil fuels
The main cause of air pollution is burning of coal, gasoline, petroleum, and other fossil fuels. These fuels are the main cause of acid rain, smog, greenhouse gas emissions, and presence of heavy metals in the air.
Fossil fuels form an important part of the society; they are used in transportation, heating, manufacturing, and even in electricity generation. This makes them an important part of the society making it difficult (but not uncontrollable) to curtail. In modern society, the use of fossil fuels can be made so that its burning becomes efficient, but this comes with a monetary cost. It is important to note that unless alternative cleaner option is found, we will have the future facing the same problems of pollution.
Increased use of motor vehicles, and emission of nitrogen
Vehicles use fuel which sometimes is not completely burnt in the engine; therefore, they release VOCs (Volatile Organic Chemicals) into the air. VOCs and nitrogen are a common source of air pollution.
Decomposition of garbage and solid wastes
Disposal sites containing biodegradable substances are known to emit methane gas into the atmosphere. Methane gas is known to be a harmful gas, it is highly flammable and a potential disaster to the ozone layer. Garbage and other household products release VOCs to the air.
Air pollution can come from natural sources such as dust, wildfires, and volcanic activity. Wildfire is known to emit VOCs and particulates into the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions spew sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash into the atmosphere. Volcanic ash is usually dumped in the upper atmosphere, and as a result, global temperatures are lowered. However, pollution resulting from natural causes remains in the atmosphere for a short period and does not result in a permanent change as it might be the case with human activity-based pollution.
Effects of Air Pollution
1. Respiratory infections
Air pollution is the leading cause of respiratory diseases. Exposure to air pollutants can cause lung cancer and even asthma. Asthma can lead to death if not well treated, as it might cause difficulty in breathing. A prolonged exposure of pollutants can cause lung cancer.
2. Global warming
The rise in sea level, rising temperature in the world, and the melting of ice glaciers are the evidence for the global warming. Global warming is a direct effect of air pollution in the world. The only way to curb this increasingly destructive menace is to reduce air pollution.
3. Depletion of ozone layer
With the greenhouse effect which is the major contributor of the release of chlorofluorocarbon into the atmosphere has led to the depletion of ozone layer. This layer is important in shielding the earth from the destructive ultraviolet (UV) radiations.
4. Formation of acid rain
Emission of harmful gasses such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen into the atmosphere lead to the formation of acid rain. It is quite common for rain water to have sulfuric acid due to rampant cases of air pollution in the modern society. Acid rain is a major threat to the aquatic life as well as human beings.
There are carcinogenic substances in the acid rain, and it has devastating effects to even metal which can be observed by the extent of corrosion that often results.
Air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide speed up the growth of algae on the water surface. This growth competes with aquatic life for oxygen, therefore, posing a major threat to fishing. The only way to reduce the devastating effects of air pollution will be to come up with effective ways of reducing air pollution.
Earth’s atmosphere has a self-regulating mechanism that ensures sequestration of carbon among other pollutants. The mechanism works to ensure that the ecosystem is not affected by the changes occurring in the atmosphere. However, if people continue to add more pollutants than the earth is able to remove, then the response will be increased smog, acid rain, global warming and a number of health problems.
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... gy exists for point sources of pollution to be monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Nonpoint sources-runoff water containing pesticides and fertilizers from acres of agricultural land, for example-are much more difficult to control. Pollution arising from nonpoint sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in streams and lakes. With almost 80 percent of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if those bodies of water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes.
Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted. The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most critical environmental problems of the century. Chemical pollution entering rivers and streams can be classified according to the nature of its sources: point pollution and nonpoint pollution. Point pollution involves pollution from a single concentrated source that can be identified, such as an outfall pipe from a factory or refinery. Nonpoint pollution involves pollution from dispersed sources that cannot be precisely identified, such as runoff from agricultural or mining operations or seepage from septic tanks or sewage drain fields. Effluent discharge represents one form of point pollution.
Contaminants present in effluent discharge include heavy metals, mercury, raw sewage, coliform bacteria and various disease-causing protozoans. These contaminants accumulate in bottom sediments and become incorporated into bottom-dwelling fish and invertebrates. Once assimilated into living plants and animals, the contaminants move quickly through the food chain, affecting the health of animals and humans. Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer.
Water that seeps through porous rocks and is stored beneath the ground is called groundwater. Worldwide, groundwater is 40 times more abundant than fresh water in streams and lakes, and although groundwater is a renewable resource, reserves are replenished relatively slowly. In the United States, approximately half the drinking water comes from groundwater. Presently, groundwater in the United States is being withdrawn approximately four times faster than it is being naturally replaced. The Ogallala Aquifer, a huge underground reservoir stretching under eight states of the Great Plains, is being drawn down at rates exceeding 100 times the replacement rate, suggesting that agricultural practices depending on this source of water may have to change within a generation.
When groundwater is depleted in coastal regions, oceanic salt water commonly intrudes into freshwater supplies. Saltwater intrusion is threatening the drinking water of many areas along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The EPA has estimated that, on average, 25 percent of usable groundwater is contaminated, although in some areas as much as 75 percent is contaminated. Contamination arises from leaking underground storage tanks, poorly designed industrial waste ponds, and seepage from the deep-well injection of hazardous wastes into underground geologic formations. Because groundwater is recharged and flows so slowly, once polluted it will remain contaminated for extended periods. 7 -Habitat Destruction and Species Extinction: It is difficult to estimate the rate at which humans are driving species extinct because scientists believe that only a small percentage of the earth's species have been described.
What is clear is that species are dying out at an unprecedented rate; minimum estimates are at least 4000 species per year, although some scientists believe the number may be as high as 50, 000 per year. The leading cause of extinction is habitat destruction, particularly of the world's richest ecosystems-tropical rain forests and coral reefs. At the current rate at which the world's rain forests are being cut down, they may completely disappear by the year 2030. If growing population size puts even more pressure on these habitats, they might well be destroyed sooner.
Pesticide residues on crops and mercury in fish are examples of toxic substances that may be encountered in daily life. Many industrially produced chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, genetic mutations, or death The world cannot continue to rely on the burning of fossil fuels for much of its industrial production and transportation. Fossil fuels are in limited supply; in addition, when burned they contribute to global warming, air pollution, and acid rain. One reasonable solution is to combine conservation strategies with the increased use of solar energy. The price of solar energy relative to traditional fuels has been dropping steadily, and if environmental concerns were factored into the cost, solar power would already be significantly cheaper. Although it is desirable to have a wider range of energy options, other alternative sources of power (such as wind, geothermal, or hydroelectric) are not likely to provide large-scale solutions in the foreseeable future. " Environmental engineering deals with the applied application of engineering knowledge and principles for the protection and preservation of the environment for the benefit of mankind. " Environmental engineering is manifest by sound engineering thought and practice in the solution of problems of safe, palatable and ample public water supplies, the proper disposal of or recycle of waste water and solid wastes, the adequate drainage of urban and rural areas for proper sanitation; and the control of water, soil and the atmospheric pollution and the social and environmental impacts of these solution.
It is also concerned with engineering in the field of public health. Such as control of arthropod- borne diseases, the elimination of industrial health hazards, and the provision of adequate sanitation in urban, rural and recreational areas, and the effect of technological advances on the environment. " ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN ENVIRONMENT Due to transportation system many environmental problems occur. Such as congestion, energy consumption, local and global air pollution, noise pollution, and traffic accidents. All above environmental problems can be minimize by applying the laws of transportation engineering.
Traffic engineer can also give policies like, Start mass transit program instead of permitting new route permit of coaches. Ban rickshaws and without silencers vehicle. FIG- 6 AIR POLLUTION BY TRAFFIC In urban areas ground contamination is very common. This can be lessen by good planning. Nalas (which are caring sewage) should be covered to control seepage in good. By separating the strom, industrial and domestic waste.
In this way, it will be easier to By controlling the leakage from conduits. Plants are assets of any country. They help to provide healthy environment. Therefore in the construction of any project we should not destroy them blindly. file: ///C|/imran ras/Environment / assignment /gilman. jpg There are two major roads in my locality called "IBN- E - SINA ROAD" and "NAWAB SIDDIQ ALI KHAN ROAD." IBN- E-SINA road carry heavy traffic from site and by NAWAB SIDDIQ ALI KHAN road traffic flows towards sadder and tower.
Automobile exhaust contains unburned hydrocarbons, particulates, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur that contribute to acid rain, smog, and global warming. The oxides combine with water vapor in the air to form acids, which return to the ground as acid rain. Smog, a mixture of smoke (particulates) and fog, irritates the eyes, throat, and lungs and also damages plants. One of the reasons of noise pollution two major roads caring heavy traffic. Another reason of noise pollution is the so many workshops of vehicles in the vicinity where car repairers produce unbearable noise. In central market, shopkeepers (vegetables, fruits, butchers, ) don't have proper place to dispose of their garbage, so they throw them on road.
which cause malarial diseases. By overflowing of gutters mostly in the rainy season. Open Orange nala across the ibn-e-sina road. Bibliography: encarta encylopedia
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