Website Information For Bibliography

Overview

A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer. Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan.

With your background research plan in hand, you will find sources of information that will help you with your science fair project. As you find this information it will be important for you to write down where the sources are from. You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. This way, when you are typing your bibliography you won't need to go back to the library and find any missing information. The more information you write down about your source, the easier it will be for you to find if you want to read it again.

When you are writing your report, you will use the sources in your bibliography to remind you of different facts and background information you used for your science fair project. Each time you use some information from a source, you will need to cite the source that it came from. To cite a source, simply put the author's name and the date of the publication in parentheses (Author, date) in your text. If the person reading your report wants to find the information and read more about it, they can look up the reference in your bibliography for more detail about the source. That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves.

Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate.

Examples of Bibliography Formats

There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information. The most basic information that each reference should have is the author's name, the title, the date, and the source.

Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography. In American schools, the two most commonly used guidelines for this formatting are published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) and the APA (American Psychological Association).

The MLA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called Works Cited. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common MLA formats for your use: MLA Format Examples.

The APA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called the Reference List. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common APA formats for your use: APA Format Examples.

Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use.

On the Science Buddies website we use the following guidelines:

  • APA format for online sources
  • MLA format for all other sources
  • APA (author, date, page) format for citations in our articles

Getting Started

Download and print the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet. Keep several copies with you and fill in the information as you do your research. When you are finished, type the information from the worksheet into a formatted bibliography using the examples listed above.

Sample Bibliographies

Sample Bibliography: MLA Works Cited Format
Sample Bibliography: APA Reference List Format

Bibliography Checklist

What Makes a Good Bibliography?For a Good Bibliography, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question
Have you included at least 3 sources of written information on your subject? (If you include Web pages, they should be in addition to the written sources.)Yes / No
Have you included complete information to identify each of your sources (author's name, the title, the date, and where it was published)?Yes / No
Have you used the proper format for each of your sources? Most teachers prefer the MLA or APA formats. Yes / No
Is your Bibliography in alphabetical order, by author's last name?Yes / No
Do you have sources of information to answer all of your research questions?Yes / No

Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later.

For information about automatically formatting your bibliography in MLA, APA, and Chicago-style see: APA, MLA, Chicago: Automatically format bibliographies.

Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography.

Add a new citation and source to a document

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style.

  2. Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

  3. Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.

  4. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Insert Citation.

  5. Do one of the following:

    • To add the source information, click Add New Source, then begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.

    • To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

  6. Fill in the bibliography information for the source.

To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

Now you can create your bibliography.

Notes:

  • If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year. For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a].

  • If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and then press ENTER to correctly order the citations.

Add additional citations from a previously used source

You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple.

  1. Place the cursor where you want to insert a citation, and click References > Insert Citation.

  2. Find the citation by the Author or Tag name, and select the citation.

    Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to look up a citation later. Click References > Insert Citation. Click Add New Placeholder, and create a unique Tag name. Find the Placeholder in your content, and click the text to Edit Source details.

Create a bibliography

Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography.

  1. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document.

  2. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Bibliography.

  3. Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the document.

Find a source

The list of sources that you use can become quite long. At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by using the Manage Sources command.

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

    If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List.

    If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List. All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List.

  2. To find a specific source, do one of the following:

    • In the sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find.

    • In the Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to find. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term.

Note: You can click the Browse button in Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is hosted by a university or research institution.

Edit a source

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

  2. In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List, select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit.

    Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and click Edit.

  3. In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK.

Edit a citation placeholder

Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information. Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

  2. Under Current List, click the placeholder that you want to edit.

    Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the word Placeholder and a number, but you can customize the placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want.

  3. Click Edit.

  4. Begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.

  5. Fill in the bibliography information for the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *